40 Studies that Changed Psychology is an academic textbook written by Roger R. Hock. This book provides summaries and critiques on necessary research and insight into the science of psychology. It uncovers the complications of human nature and is used in all psychology courses. It demonstrates the original studies and research works of psychology. This book is also beneficial for those who want to expand their knowledge in psychology and its relative field. Hock bridges the gap between all the psychology textbooks and the research works, making it possible to publish those books. The book contains theoretical propositions, methods, results, and discussions—all the studies make it easier for the readers to understand.
40 Studies that Changed Psychology Summary
Learning and Consciousness are the main topics discussed in chapters two and three, respectively. The “Little Albert” experiment by Watson is discussed here where a nine-month-old baby was used. Hock talks about the ethical treatment of children in psychological research in these sections. The other chapters in the books discuss cognition, development, and motivation. These chapters review the works of Edwards C. Tolman on cognitive psychology. You will also learn about Elizabeth Loftus’ work on the criminal justice system’s influence by psychology. The sexual revolution of Masters and Johnson is also presented in this book.
40 Studies that Changed Psychology was reviewed by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1955. It is not actually a fundamental textbook for students. But it has all the research works that are mentioned in the course textbooks. This book will help the students dig deep into the subject matter and gather knowledge on different psychology fields.
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We are mentioning a few of the Frequently Asked Questions related to this book. If you read this book, you will get many summaries of several experiments in psychological advancement. If you want to know even to work on psychological research, you may keep this book. From my honors study, I am taking help from this book. Still, now I take a look when I want to do any experiment in the psychology field. It is a great resource for my knowledge.
Which statement summarizes the main idea of reciprocal determinism?
Canadian-American psychologist Albert Bandura put forward the theory of Reciprocal Determinism. According to this theory, our behavior, cognitive process, and situational context all influence each other. Bandura says that consequences can be used to condition the behavior of a person. He also states that a person’s behavior can influence the environment.
What was the primary finding of the Minnesota study of twins reared apart?
The Minnesota Twin Family Study was conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota in 1989. It is a cross-sectional study of twins. This study aimed to identify the genetic and environmental influences on the development of the twins. The research shows that, even when monozygotic or identical twins are reared separately, they tend to have the same psychological traits.
What is the main point of the textbook discussion of Milgram’s obedience study?
The Milgram experiment was conducted on obedience to authority figures by psychologist Stanley Milgram in July 1961. When he performed this experiment, then he was working at Yale University. It was a series of social psychology experiments that measured the participants’ willingness to follow and obey the instructions given by an authority figure. The participants were instructed to perform acts, e.g., administering electric shocks to a person, which certainly conflicted with their personal conscience. Unexpectedly, it was found that a huge number of participants would follow and obey the instructions thoroughly, even though they were very reluctant.
What are the famous psychology experiments?
Some of the famous psychology experiments to date are –
The Little Albert Experiment: The experiment was conducted in 1920 by John Hopkins University professor Dr. John B. Watson and one of his graduate students. It was aimed to test classical conditioning, an involuntary learning process.
Harlow’s Rhesus Monkey Experiments: A series of experiments conducted by psychologist Harry Harlow between the 1950s and 1960s. This experiment demonstrated the importance of love and affection for the development of a healthy childhood.
Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment: While studying his dog’s digestive system, physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovers that his dog drools every time it sees the lab assistant. Later he discovers that this drooling is conditioned by relating to a previously neutral stimulus (buzzer/bell) with a biologically potent stimulus that triggers a response (food).
The Bobo Doll Experiment: Conducted by Stanford University professor Albert Bandura, this experiment demonstrates Social Learning theory. The theory suggests that people can acquire new behavior by observing the behavior of others.
The Learned Helplessness Experiment: Martin Seligman conducted this experiment to study classical conditioning from a different perspective. It shows that subjects who have been conditioned to negative outcomes will never search for positive outcomes in certain situations. This tendency is called learned helplessness as they are forced to believe to be helpless from their past experiences.
Milgram’s Experiment: Psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted an experiment consisting of multiple social experiments in July 1961. It measured the willingness of the subjects to obey the instructions given by an authority figure. And what they might do if the instructions go against their personal conscience.
What is one reason that more affluent individuals may experience better health?
People who are confident enough and have the right potential can control themselves in challenging situations. The one reason that more affluent individuals may experience better health is to manage their reactions to life’s stressors. Some people stay calm and happy even when they have thousands of problems. Some stay depressed even if they do not have any single problem. This is all about how people think and analyze their situations.
What is the primary conclusion John B. Watson made after working with little Albert?
The Little Albert Experiment was a controlled experiment on classical conditioning. John B. Watson and his graduate student Rosalie Rayner conducted this experiment at John Hopkins University. They observed a group of children and found that their scary response to loud noise is an innate unconditioned response. Watson wanted to use classical conditioning principles to use this unconditioned response to condition a child to fear furry objects.
For this experiment, Watson used a nine-month-old baby named Albert, who previously didn’t fear furry objects. He was allowed to play with some furry animals, and at the same time, loud noise was made. Albert would cry and scream, hearing the loud noise. After a series of repetitions of this same incident when Albert was exposed to a white laboratory rat, he started screaming again. Watson reached the conclusion that classical conditioning works on human beings as well, and unconditioned responses can be used to condition another response.
Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?
The crossed-extensor reflex is triggered as soon as a stranger grasps your arm. When one side of your body receives any stimulus, this reflex allows you to make a sudden action on the other side. When this reflex is triggered, you try to withdraw your grasped hand, and at the same time, your other arm pushes you away from the stranger.
Which statement best describes an important finding of Milgram’s classic research?
Milgram’s classic experiment describes that people will easily obey an authority figure and cause harm to others. Based on this experiment, Milgram established the Agency Theory, which explains the two states of human behavior in a social situation –
The Autonomous State: People perform actions of their own will and take responsibility for the consequences.
The Agentic State: People allow others to direct them to do something. They pass on the responsibility of the consequences to the person who gave the order. They act like agents who carry out other’s orders.
Milgram explains two reasons behind a person being in the agentic state –
- The person who gives the order is seemed to be having the leadership quality and can direct people’s behavior.
- The person who is given the order thinks that the authority will take all the responsibility for his actions.
From this experiment, it is observed that people only obey an authority figure’s orders against their personal conscience if the authority takes responsibility for their actions. Roger R. Hock, in his book “40 Studies that Changed Psychology,” presents basic to advanced level important information. So, beginner to the advanced level reader can collect this book to explore human behavior from psychological research. We will suggest you buy the latest version to get updated information.
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