Psychology is the science of behavior and mental process. The word psychology comes from the Greek word psyche, which originated from the soul or self. Its literal meaning is life or breath. Psychology emphasizes the impact of genetic, social, biological, environmental factors on behavior.
Behavior defines the way we think, act, or feel. The mental process includes cognition of the mind. Cognation is a broad term that describes perception, sensation, thinking process, reasoning, problem-solving, etc.
Psychology as a science and profession
The human mind is the most complex phenomenon which comes from thought and behavior. Psychology is called the science of mind. All of the therapeutic procedures and activities are evidence-based.
Psychology is a science and a profession that describes how people think, feel a response, and learn from them. The goal of psychology is to explore the human thought process and behavior that use in practical life. It improves the quality of life by managing personal issues.
Psychology and Other Disciplines
Psychology is inter-related with many other disciplines like biology, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, and artificial intelligence.
For example, neurology is related to biology as the primary purpose is to explore the various brain areas that function for memory and language. The professional health psychologist helps to manage the acute and chronic diseases caused by mental disorders. Also, psychology is related to medicine.
The History of Psychology as a Discipline
The psychological perspectives started by establishing the first experimental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. Wilhelm Wundt founded this lab, so he is called the pioneer of psychology.
There is also various “school of thought” to describe human behavior and mental process. Below are some of the schools of thought in psychology.
Structuralism: Wundt and Titchener became associated with structuralism. This is the earliest school of thought.
Functionalism: William James, who was the philosopher and psychologist. He was associated with functionalism, which focused on human consciousness and behavior.
Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis is one of the best influential approaches in psychology. Sigmund Freud’s centered on how the unconscious mind influences human behavior.
Behaviorism: In the 1913s, American Psychologist John B. Watson focuses on learning new behavior from the environment. The behavioral school of thought influences internal behavior. From this period, psychology was studied as observable behavior.
Humanistic psychology: The humanistic approach emphasis personal growth and self-actualization. Also, its emphasis on behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory. This theory proposed that humans are instinctually good, and our cognition plays an active role in our behavior.
Cognitive psychology: In this stage, internal mental processes spread out. This stage was introduced in the 1970s. This is the most recent school of thought in psychology. A glorious improvement occurs in this period, like thinking, problem solving, memory, sensation, and perception. Cognitive psychologists believe that we take information through our sense organs to process data to adapt, manipulate, or remember our stored data.
What is a Psychologist?
Psychologists work on human behavior. They are therapists, clinicians, scientists also a researcher. They address psychological issues related to relationships, education, economy, crime, etc. Human behavior consists of thought processes and actions, so psychologists are experts in human behavior. As we can not observe the mind, so the psychologist takes human behavior as a row of data to explore the mind functions.
German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt first open a lab on experimental psychology in 1879 in Leipzig. He first researched the relationship between mind, brain, and behavior.
Areas and scopes of psychology:
The areas and scopes of psychology are a wide range. According to APA, there are more than 54 divisions where a psychologist has scope to work; some are listed below:
- Human rights
- Kids and the media
- Eating disorders
- Bipolar disorder
- Socioeconomic status
- Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender
Role of the Psychologists:
Psychologist plays a vital role in various issues. Some of the important functions are listed below:
- Conduct basic and applied research.
- Work as a mental health professional in a variety of communities and organizations.
- Educate future professional psychologists.
- Make personality and intelligence tests.
- Proper assessment or diagnosis and make a treatment plan.
- Do various psychological workshops and training to enhance personal growth.
- Create positive consciousness among the people to improve mental health.
- Establish various psychological and research tools.
The American Psychological Association (APA) suggested five skills for professional psychologists.
- Personality assessment.
- Therapy for drug and substance abuse disorders.
- Diagnosis and treatment of various psychological illnesses.
- Sports psychology.
Importance of Psychology
Psychology plays a vital role in the applied and academic field, influencing both personal and social life. Psychology is widely used for psychological assessment and treatment. Some of the additional impacts include bellow:
- Enhance understanding of the people for their emotional and behavioral wellbeing.
- Improving various issues or factors that impact thinking and responding to psychological and physical health.
- Implementation of training on ergonomics for industrial growth.
- Increasing the productivity of employees.
- Motivating the people to get their success.
- Enhancing public health programs for safety and security.
- Increasing design and computer technology.
- Improving military life from a psychological perspective.
The Major Goals of Psychology
The psychologist can contribute to every place where have human accomplishment. Their leading goals are to describe, explain, predict, change, or behavior of the organism.
Describe: Describing a behavior or cogitation is the first goal of psychology, enabling the researcher to collect the concept of human behavior.
Explain: After completing the first described state, the next is to explore how and why this trend happens and which theories can describe behavior.
Predict: Psychology aims to predict behavior from past findings. If the prediction is not standard, then again revised explanation can be started.
Change: After described, explained, and create predictions of behavior, necessary change can occur.
Types of Psychology
Psychology consists of a wide range of branches or fields like human behavior and mental process, personal growth and development, personality traits, emotion, motivation, and many more. In the 21st century, some of the psychological fields are getting more attention. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), the following are some of the best specialties and application areas of professional psychology.
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Abnormal psychology is the field of psychology that emphasizes abnormal behavior and psychopathology. This particular area works on the treatment of various mental diseases. The main treatment plan is associated with psychotherapy and clinical or health psychology.
It is also called biopsychology, which discusses the process of mind and behavior. This field is connected with neuroscience and used tools like MRI, PET, etc., to check brain abnormalities and injury.
Clinical psychology combines science and theory in clinical practice. This branch is directly co-related with a psychological disorder like anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD, sexual malfunction, and phobias. Eating disorders, Personality disorders. Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. Depression, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders. This area mainly focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, and psychotherapy of these mental disorders.
Cognitive psychology research how we learn, communicate, and how we think. Also, it focuses on thought processes like perception, sensation, reasoning, language, decision-making, memory, problem-solving, and language acquisition.
Comparative psychology is the study of animal behavior. The comparative psychologist researches the various cognitive and behavioral processes to get more findings.
Developmental psychology is the subbranch of psychology that focuses on the growth and development of people’s lifespan from birth to death. The development includes cognitive functioning, moral principle, identity, and social development.
Developmental psychologists investigate the impact of mental structure on learning and personal characteristics. The research of developmental psychologists includes neurological, emotional, social, cognitive-intellectual, and language acquisition.
Also, the developmental psychologist may serve in academic settings link clinics or hospitals, schools, etc.
Forensic psychology is the most wanted growing area of psychology. This field may use research and the principle of psychology in law and criminal justice perspectives. Forensic psychologists may practice civil courts, attorneys, jails, offenders, rehabilitation centers, police departments, etc.
The work of forensic psychologist includes:
- Providing Court testimony.
- Implementing mental assessments.
- Evaluating court order.
- Providing mental health support like screening, group therapy, etc.
- Providing crisis management training or counseling in police departments.
Industrial-organizational psychology (IOP)
IOP is an applied field that focuses on psychological research to increase employees’ work performance and select employees. The main aim of Industrial-organizational psychology is to enhance the productivity of the man-machine system. Industrial psychology is often called occupational psychology.
The important goal of IOP is to find out the efficiency and satisfaction among the employees. They actually work in large companies or organizations. Company owners, managers, or any high-level authorities can get help from the IO psychologist. They solve extend problems, including maintenance, company standard, or general competence.
Personality psychology focuses on personality development, thought process, behavior, and characteristics that make the uniqueness of human responses from others.
Social psychology studies social health from a psychological perspective. For example, group attitudes or behavior influence social norms or standards on people’s behavior, prejudice, conformity, aggression, disaster, and many other social stimuli and norms.
Application of psychology
The application of psychology is a wide range. Psychologists use a variety of principles and research findings to overcome symptoms of psychological illness. Some other psychological applications are included below:
- Enhancing educational skills.
- Mental health well-being.
- Social skill training.
- Personal growth development.
- Mental health-related research.
- Assessment and treatment of child development issues.
- Development of Nonviolent communication.
How do psychologists know the human mind?
10 tricks that professional psychologists use to know the human mind are:
- Be objective-oriented and open-minded.
- Keep attention to the appearance.
- Pay attention to people’s posture.
- Observe the physical movements
- Try to interpret facial expressions.
- Pay attention to the speed, consistency of speech.
- Communicate with NVC(Nonviolent Communication).
- Don’t run away from small talk.
- Provide praising or positive regard.
- Be an active listener; listen more than talk. Use paraphrasing, reflection, summarization.
Best Books of psychology
Every book can help people to grow their instincts asset. A psychology book helps people to identify their feelings and thought processes to get a congenial life. Also, Psychology books develop mind power and keep motivating by improving mental health status.
There are various psychology books which are important for beginners to advance level reader. Important books include Sales Psychology, Evolutionary psychology, Social psychology, Behavioral Psychology, Dark Psychology, Sports psychology, Athlete mindset, Interposition Psychology, etc.
Top 10 must-read psychological books:
I have a collection of 10 books that I think every person needs to read to discover the unknown world. I also have these collections—I learn many things from these books.
- Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl
- Eleven minutes by Paulo Coelho
- Alchemist by Paulo Coelho
- Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
- Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding
- The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne
- The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R
- The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
- The Diary Of A Young Girl by Anne Frank
Last updated: on 2021-03-20 / In the top 10 books, there are affiliate links from Amazon Product Advertising. We earn affiliate commissions from qualifying purchases.
Top 15 Psychological Facts
Now we will show you the most important 15 psychological facts which possess everybody:
- Intelligent people have fewer friends than ordinary people.
- Smarter people are selective than others.
- Marriage with a best friend has less risk of being divorced or separated by over 70%.
- Women who have mostly male friends stay in more often with life satisfaction.
- Everybody has Inattention Blindness.
- You read faster with a longer line length and prefer shorter.
- You can only remember 3 to 4 things at a time.
- Men are the more organically exposed of the two sexes.
- The race is a social paradigm, not a biological one.
- The body is the way to self-healing.
- Haters can experience reform.
- You imagine objects from above and tilted.
- Everybody makes most of their decisions unconsciously.
- Everybody reconstructs their memories.
- Nature to be violent is nature to have empathy.
Conclusion: In recent, the field of psychology is gaining more popularity for its scientific approaches. In every perspective, psychologists use scientific methodology. They implement theories, hypotheses, observation, and experiments to analyze human behavior and mental process.
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